Internationalized Travel Domain Names
Domain Name Allocation Plan
The number of names available within the .nyc TLD is essentially limitless. But it's vital that we create a methodology for identifying, reserving, allocating, and recycling domain names important to the city's future. Here we present our recommendations for policies and processes for setting aside names to facilitate the TLDs operation and navigation: names and name-sets for public interest uses, for small businesses, for trademark holders, for auction, etc.
Serving The Public Interest
Developing a Domain Name Allocation Plan that serves the long term interest of the New York City community entails difficult choices. The below recommendations were aided by a body of experience: the methodology used by .com, .org, the .eu, .asia, and other TLDs; and by community standards developed by the FCC and others. In setting a way to value the short term vs. long term public interest, we engaged with experts from a variety of fields and engaged the public at meetings, through this wiki, and through our advisory committees. And we welcome more views via this wiki or email.
Identifying names that significantly impact the public interest and then sorting through distribution processes and potential competitive claims to represent these names could delay a name's introduction, reducing the utility of the overall TLD. But time is on our side, with city TLDs able to draw upon 25 years of Domain Name System experience,and haste our key enemy. (See Domain Name Opinion Machine.)
In thinking about names without an obvious owner, such as news.nyc or music.nyc, there are three evident allocation alternatives:
- Sell Them - Hold a simple auction with the high bidder winning.
- Sell Them With Strings - Develop guidelines for identifying the public interest, then select names, such as music.nyc, to be set aside for development by relevant communities. These names are of two types: historic geographic communities such as Astoria, Harlem, and Soho. And communities of interest: music, news, shoes.... See the Rugby vs. Rugby page for a further discussion of when these two types collide.
- Operate Them - For example, with the Standard Portal Names - hardware.nyc, shoes.nyc - the governance body should select a managing entity to see that name purchasers are listed in appropriate category(ies). This will encourage name sales and generate revenue though advertising sales on portal pages..
An ontology for different types of relationships and names is an important early step in identifying name distribution policies. One view sees different "bands": trademark, local trademark, exclusive, shared, community...
An early question arises as to what are appropriate community or public interest names? What process do we use to identify "civic" and "public interest" domain names. Some seem obvious: gov.nyc, mayor.nyc, and council.nyc for government; for the tourism industry, hotels.nyc; and for the general public names like www.directory.nyc and www.index.nyc.
Required as per ICANN Contract
We will comport with ICANN recommendations on reserved names for technical and public policy reasons. The ICANN will likely require that the following second level names be reserved: 0, 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, a, AFRINIC, APNIC, ARIN, ASO, b, c, ccNSO, d, e, Example, f, g, GNSO, gtld-servers, h, i, IAB, IANA, iana-servers, ICANN, IESG, IETF, Internic, IRTF, ISTF, j, k, l, LACNIC, LATNIC, m, n, NIC*, o, p, q, r, rfc-editor, RIPE, root-servers, s, t, test, u, v, w, Whois*, www*, x, y, z.. The * names are reserved for use by registry operators only.
Reserved to Facilitate the Operation of the .nyc TLD
Reserved for Intellectual Property Holders
"Sunrise" periods provide existing trademark and other intellectual property (IP) holders with the opportunity to reserve names in the .nyc space.
Trademark Sunrise Period - National and international trademark holders might seek names such as: www.siemens.nyc, www.hyatt.nyc, www.porsche.nyc, www.lufthansa.nyc, www.ebay.nyc, www.google.nyc, www.newyorkpost.nyc, www.ibm.nyc, www.nytimes.nyc, www.coke.nyc. Traditionally a 1-2 month period is set aside for such trademark holders.
- Local Sunrise Period - We are considering having NYC based companies and organizations provided with the opportunity to reserve familiar names such as www.cuny.nyc, www.nypl.nyc, www.nyu.nyc, and www.queenscollege.nyc.
Reserved for the Future
How do we reserve names for future generations? A vexing problem. Year names provide a good example of name set-asides: 2010.nyc, 2011.nyc, 2012.nyc, etc. What other names should be set aside for future use? See our Sustainable City-TLD page for a discussion.
Held in Trust for Local New York City Government Units
The .nyc TLD will facilitate the interaction and operation of city governance and service delivery with institutions, residents, community organizations, and businesses. Intuitive URLs like council.nyc, mayor.nyc, and police.nyc will make a city’s resources readily available and easier to locate. As well, city government can develop micro sites like parkingregs.gov.nyc and cityholidays.gov.nyc.
gov.nyc - as redirect, mirror, or home for New York City's government website.
The cb##.borough.gov.nyc (currently used is cb##.borough.nyc.gov) series for the city's 59 community boards.
On June 9, 2008, Connecting.nyc volunteers reached out to public employees through our "Names for a Livable City" effort. On June 29, 2009, speaking at the Personal Democracy Forum, Mayor Bloomberg suggested using data.nyc for the NYC Apps initiative. It sounds like the mayor has been reading our wiki.
Business Improvement Districts provide local property owners and merchants with the power to manage their environment through a form of local taxation. Good domain names can help their operation.
Business Improvement Districts
See the Civic Names page and the set-aside project.
Many .nyc names might be considered part of a commons, to be developed for the benefit of residents.
There are tens of thousands of English dictionary names.
Some geographic names are legal entities, others are real estate names coined to sell property in specific geographic areas. New York City has hundreds of "neighborhoods" and other places, some of which have name value. See dotNeighborhoods and the Cyber Land Use Plan for more on this.
- Boroughs: queens.nyc, manhattan.nyc, brooklyn.nyc, bronx.nyc, thebronx.nyc, staten-island.nyc
- Neighborhoods: jackson-heights.nyc, astoria.nyc, greenwich-village.nyc, uppereastside.nyc, upper-east-side.nyc, bensonhurst.nyc.
- Park Names: central-park.nyc, centralpark.nyc
Soon there will be an Internet domain name for every object in the public sphere, every billboard, building, database, fire hydrant, park, street, tree...This "Internet of Things" is empowered by a technology called the "Semantic Web." See how the .nyc TLD can facilitate the identification, networking, and development of the coming Internet, perhaps more appropriately, City of Things. Learn more here.
Internet of Things
New York City is perhaps the world's most culturally diverse city. See the plan for reserving Nationality Names.
Neighborhood Names - dotNeighborhoods
New York is a city of neighborhoods. Criteria are being developed for distributing these dotNeighborhood Names.
See the discussion about the portals and portal pages. Possible portal pages include: craftsmen.nyc | fashion.nyc | hairdressers.nyc | hotels.nyc | pharmacys.nyc | real-estate.nyc | yellowpages.nyc. See this directory for 2,300 category names.
Locations set aside for public meeting and discussion.
Water Resource Names
New York is a port city composed of many islands with less than 10% part of the mainland. In recent years the city has started opening access to formerly severely polluted waters. We are collecting the historic and current names of the city's water resources for possible reservation and allocation to responsible entities. See
City of Water Names
Primary Intuitive Names provide a rich opportunity to raise immediate revenue and diminish name hoarding.
An August 2008 paper published by ICANN and its "auction partner" PowerAuctions LLC see The Economic Case for Auctions in New TLDs, sheds light on the matter.In the instance of the .asia TLD, those indicating an interest in the same domain name as of a specified closing date were entered into a high bidder electronic auction. Possibilities for name auctions include:
sports.nyc, news.nyc and names of this sort have no obvious "owners" with prior claim on them. They can be auctioned early on to fund the start-up efforts, later to raise larger funds for our education efforts, or operated as part of a .nyc commons.
com.nyc - Using TLDs as second level domains is currently prohibited by ICANN. As there are intuitive and taxonomic benefits from such usages, we will petition for their use. If successful, these "TLD" names will be made available.
a.nyc, b.nyc, c.nyc..., 1.nyc, 2.nyc... - Issuing single character, second level domain names ( 1, 2, 3... and a, b, c...) is currently prohibited by ICANN. This policy is under review by the ICANN and should it change, we would place these up for auction.
- and portal selections might also be held by the commons or auctioned.
Disambiguation offers one means for resolving disputes over names when a single name can be associated with more than one entity. Apple Records and Apple Computer provide a classic example of an early conflict over the www.apple.com domain name. In many cases, this word or phrase is the same natural title of more than one organization. Disambiguations are paths leading to different domain pages that share essentially the same characters in their title. This is closely related to portal pages.
Shared, Temporary Names
It is expected that a pool of civic names for use on a temporary basis will be developed. For example, SaveTheTree.nyc might facilitate civic goals of many different projects, either simultaneously or over time. Such a pool of names would be part of a sustainable TLD plan.
This is an area of great sensitivity for many people. Four letter words are frequently the first to draw children to search a dictionary. What policy is appropriate for these words? What about their counterparts in foreign languages? A study of the FCC's community standards might provide a start on this and George Carlin's 7 dirty words. Others have suggested caution around certain words with a sexual connotation.
Names to Facilitate International Travel
On November 14, 2007 Connecting.nyc participated on a Broadening the Domain Name Space: Adding TLDs for Cities and Regions panel at the U.N. sponsored Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Rio. Panelist Sébastien Bachollet, appearing on behalf of the .paris TLD, previewed the internationalization study initiated by developers of the .nyc, .berlin, and .paris TLDs at an earlier ICANN meeting in Los Angeles. He provided three instances where second level domain names might be developed in various languages - www.taxi.nyc, www.hotels.paris, and www.hospital.berlin. By way of example, he explained that when in need of health care, German or French speaking visitors to New York City might enter www.krankenhaus.nyc or www.hôpital.nyc in their respective languages and receive pages with the needed, in some instances vital, information. We are continuing a dialog on this innovation.
||New York City
The following issue areas will be facilitated through policy formations .
A Dispute Resolution Policy refers to the mechanism for resolving competitive requests for domain names. See the following for DRP examples.
Guidelines for the .nyc's DRP might also be guided by various "Laws of the Internet" (see sidebar). See this Wikipedia entry as a primer.See the Rugby vs. Rugby discussion for a discussion of sector contention.
Hording / Speculation / Typosquatting / Name Clouds
What lessons are to be learned from the .com, .biz, .eu, and .asia experiences?
- For an excellent article on name clouds, see Bret Fausett's article on the Namesbriefs blog.
- See this report on typosquatting: http://us.mcafee.com/root/identitytheft.asp?id=safe_typo&cid=38296.
Connecting.nyc will limit those who can purchase a .nyc domain to those with a strong New York City nexus or connection. The criteria for establishing nexus will include property ownership, business license, and voter registration. For examples of nexus requirements see:
- Singapore - Domain Name Registration Agreement
- The .us Requirement - http://www.neustar.us/policies/docs/ustld_nexus_requirements.pdf
- The .asia Nexus - http://www.dotasia.org/draft/DotAsia-Charter-Eligibility--FINALDRAFT-v-1-5.paf
- The .cat (Catalonia) Nexus - http://www.domini.cat/media/upload/arxius/charter.pdf
Most knowledgeable people indicate that there's a slippery slope here that will inevitably lead .nyc to be as open as the .com TLD. We believe "most knowledgeable people" are wrong in this instance. See our Nexus Policy page.
- Name Panels - Via Twitter.
- Proximity - Geographic locations are an important element of the .nyc TLD's intuitive design. See the "namespace and GIS" page for other geographic relationships.
- Sustainable City TLDs - When .nyc comes online it will provide a seemingly endless set of names to draw upon. But if we take a "city view" of domain names, imagining how the .nyc TLD will serve us 10, 20, and 100 years from now, one enters the realm of sustainability.
- Launch Schedule
- The Economic Case for Auctions in New TLDs - A paper by ICANN and its "auction partner" PowerAuctions LLC.
- Who owns Hillary? - A proposal for more trademark-like protections for political names. See this SSRN paper.
- The .eu Domain Name Distribution Process
- First-Come First-Served Paper
- The Perfect Sunrise? - A booklet on designing a sunrise period by the IPC.
- History of the DNS in a Thousand Emails
- No time to wait for a .nyc domain name? Perhaps this page will from Smashing Magazine will help.
- Sustainable City TLDs
Key .nyc Pages
- The .nyc Wiki Home Page
- Nexus Policy
- Common Pool Resources
- Cyber Land-Use Plan
- Public Spaces
- The Portals